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Glossary /Acronyms & Abbreviations

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A
AADI - Adjusted Acceptable Daily Intake
AChE - acetylcholinesterase
ACGIH - American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake
AHFS - American Hospital Formulary Service
a.i. - active ingredient
AIHA - American Industrial Health Association
AMA - American Medical Association
AOAC - Association of Official Analytical Chemists
APA - American Pharmaceutical Association
ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Exchange
ASHP - American Society of Hospital Pharmacists
AUR - Air Unit Risk
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B
b:a lambda(a) - Blood-to-air partition coefficient of the chemical for the experimental animal species used in the HEC derivation of an RfC
b:a lambda(h) - Blood-to-air partition coefficient of the chemical for the human used in the HEC derivation of an RfC
BHP - biodegradation, hydrolysis, and photolysis
BOD5 - biochemical oxygen demand as measured in the standard 5-day test
BUN - blood urea nitrogen
Bw - body weight
BWa - Body weight (kg) for experimental animal species used in the HEC derivation of an RfC.
BWh - Body weight (kg) for human used in the HEC derivation of an RfC.
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C
CAG - Carcinogen Assessment Group, U.S. EPA
CAS - Chemical Abstracts Service
CBI - Confidential business information
cc - cubic centimeters
CC - closed cup
CDC - Centers for Disease Control
CERCLA - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980
CFR - Code of Federal Regulations
CF - Conversion factor based on PBPK modeling used in the HEC derivation of an RfC for gases. Note: The CF is specific for the experimental animal species and the exposure regimen and concentration simulated.
ChE - cholinesterase
CHO - Chinese hamster ovary
CIIT - Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology
CNS - central nervous system
CPK - creatine phosphokinase
CRAVE - Carcinogen Risk Assessment Verification Endeavor
cu.m - cubic meter
CWA - Clean Water Act
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D
DASE - Dutch Association of Safety Experts
DHEW - U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (now U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)
DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid
DOT - U.S. Department of Transportation
DW - drinking water
DWEL - Drinking Water Equivalent Level
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E
E - exponent (e.g., 1.5E-6 = 1.5 x 10 to the power of -6)
EED - estimated exposure dose
EEG - electroencephalogram
EKG - electrocardiogram
ELISA - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EMTD - estimated maximum tolerated dose
EP - Extraction Procedure
ER - Extrarespiratory. Refers to effects peripheral to the respiratory system as the portal-of-entry, or systemic effects.
ET - Extrathoracic region of the respiratory tract
EPA - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
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F
FEL - frank-effect level
FIFRA - Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
FOI - Freedom of Information
F1 - first filial generation (in experimental animals)
FR - Federal Register
FRC - functional reserve capacity
FTS - Federal Telecommunications System
FWS - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
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G
g - grams
GI - gastrointestinal
GPT - glutamic-pyruvic transaminase
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H
HA - Health Advisory
HAPPS - Hazardous Air Pollution Prioritization System
HAS - Health Assessment Summary
HCT - hematocrit
HDT - highest dose tested
HEC - human equivalent concentration
HEEP - Health and Environmental Effects Profile
Hgb - hemoglobin
HHS - U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
HSDB - Hazardous Substance Database
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I
IARC - International Agency for Research on Cancer
ICR - Institute of Cancer Research
ICRP - International Commission for Radiological Protection
i.m. - intramuscular
i.p. - intraperitoneal
i.v. - intravenous
IRIS - Integrated Risk Information System
ITII - International Technical Information Institute
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K
kg - kilogram
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L
L - liter
LCLO - Lethal Concentration Low; the lowest concentration at which death occurred
LC50 - Lethal Concentration 50; concentration lethal to 50% of the animals LDLO
LD50 - Lethal Dose 50; dose lethal to 50% of the animals
LDH - lactic-acid dehydrogenase
LDT - lowest dose tested
LEL - lower explosive limit
LEL - lowest-effect level
Lethal Dose Low - the lowest dose at which death occurred
LOAEL - lowest-observed-adverse-effect level
LOAEL(ADJ) - LOAEL adjusted to continuous exposure duration from an intermittent regimen by hour/day and days/7 days.
LOAEL(HEC) - LOAEL adjusted for dosimetric differences across species to a human equivalent concentration.
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M
m - meter
MCL - maximum contaminant level
MCLG - maximum contaminant level goal
MED - minimum effective dose
MEFV - maximum expiratory flow volume
MF - modifying factor
mg - milligram
mg/kg - milligrams per kilogram
mg/L - milligrams per liter
mmHg - millimeters of mercury; a measure of pressure
MMAD - mass median aerodynamic diameter
MOE - margin of exposure
MOS - margin of safety
MTD - maximum tolerated dose
MTL - median threshold limit
MVa - Minute ventilatory volume for experimental animal species (composite value expressed in cu.m/day) used in the HEC derivation of an RfC.
MVh - Minute ventilatory volume for human (composite value expressed in cu.m/day) used in the HEC derivation of an RfC.
MVho - Minute ventilatory volume for human in an occupational environment, assuming 8 hour/day exposure (composite value expressed in cu.m/day), used in the HEC derivation of an RfC.
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N
NAAQS - National Ambient Air Quality Standards
NAS - National Academy of Sciences
NESHAP - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
NFPA - National Fire Prevention Association
ng - nanogram
NIH - National Institutes of Health
NIOSH - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
NLM - National Library of Medicine
NOAEL - no-observed-adverse-effect level
NOAEL(ADJ) - NOAEL adjusted to continuous exposure duration from an intermittent regimen by hour/day and days/7 days.
NOAEL(HEC) - NOAEL adjusted for dosimetric differences across species to a human equivalent concentration.
NOEL - no-observed-effect level
n.a. - not available
n.o.s. - not otherwise specified
NRC - National Research Council
NSPS - New Source Performance Standards
NTIS - National Technical Information Service
NTP - National Toxicology Program
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O
OAQPS - Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. EPA
OAR - Office of Air and Radiation, U.S. EPA
OARM - Office of Administration and Resources Management, U.S. EPA
OC - open cup
OW - Office of Water, U.S. EPA
OHEA - Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, U.S. EPA
OHM/TADS - Oil and Hazardous Materials Technical Assistance Data Systems
OPP - Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. EPA
OPPE - Office of Policy Planning and Evaluation, U.S. EPA
OPTS - Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. EPA
ORD - Office of Research and Development, U.S. EPA
OSHA - U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OST - Office of Science and Technology, U.S. EPA
OSWER - Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. EPA
OTS - Office of Toxic Substances, U.S. EPA
OWRS - Office of Water Regulations and Standards, U.S. EPA
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P
P - probit dose extrapolation model
PBPK - physiologically based pharmacokinetic
pCi - picocurie
PD - Position Document
PEL - permissible exposure limit
PHS - U.S. Public Health Service
p.o. - per os (by mouth)
ppb - parts per billion
ppm - parts per million
PU - pulmonary region of the respiratory tract
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R
RA - risk assessment
RBC - red blood cell(s)
RCRA - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
RDDR - Regional deposited dose ratio used in derivation of an HEC for particles.
RDDR(ER) - Regional deposited dose ratio used in the HEC derivation of an RfC for an observed extrarespiratory effect of particles.
RDDR(ET) - Regional deposited dose ratio used in the HEC derivation of an RfC for an observed effect of particles in the extrathoracic region of the respiratory tract.
RDDR(PU) - Regional deposited dose ratio used in the HEC derivation of an RfC for an observed effect of particles in the pulmonary region of the respiratory tract.
RDDR(TB) - Regional deposited dose ratio used in the HEC derivation of an RfC for an observed effect of particles in the tracheobronchial region of the respiratory tract.
RDDR(TH) - Regional deposited dose ratio used in the HEC derivation of an RfC for an observed effect of particles in the thoracic region of the respiratory tract.
RDDR(TOTAL) - Regional deposited dose ratio used the HEC derivation of an RfC for an observed effect of particles in the total respiratory tract.
RGDR - Regional gas dose ratio used in derivation of an HEC for gases.
RGDR(ET) - Regional gas dose ratio used in the HEC derivation of an RfC for an observed effect of a gas in the extrathoracic region of the respiratory tract.
RGDR(PU) - Regional gas dose ratio used in the HEC derivation of an RfC for an observed effect of a gas in the pulmonary region of the respiratory tract.
RGDR(TB) - Regional gas dose ratio used in the HEC derivation of an RfC for an observed effect of a gas in the tracheobronchial region of the respiratory tract.
RGDR(TH) - Regional gas dose ratio used in the HEC derivation of an RfC for an observed effect of a gas in the thoracic region of the respiratory tract.
RGDR(TOTAL) - Regional gas dose ratio used in the HEC derivation of an RfC for an observed effect of a gas in the total respiratory tract.
RfD - Oral Reference Dose
RfC - Inhalation Reference Concentration
RgD - Regulatory Dose
RM - risk management
RPAR - rebuttable presumption against registration
RQ - Reportable Quantity
RTECS - Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances
RV - residual volume
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S
Sa - Surface area (in sq.cm) for respiratory tract region for experimental animal species used in the HEC derivation of an RfC.
Sa(ET) - Surface area (in sq.cm) of extrathoracic region for experimental animal species used in the HEC derivation of an RfC.
Sa(TB) - Surface area (in sq.cm) of tracheobronchial region for experimental animal species used in the HEC derivation of an RfC.
Sa(TH) - Surface area (in sq.cm) of thoracic region for experimental animal species used in the HEC derivation of an RfC.
Sa(PU) - Surface area (in sq.cm) of pulmonary region for experimental animal species used in the HEC derivation of an RfC.
Sa(TOTAL) - Surface area (in sq.cm) of total respiratory system for experimental animal species used in the HEC derivation of an RfC.
SAB - Science Advisory Board
SANSS - Structure and Nomenclature Search System
SAP - serum alkaline phosphatase
SARA - Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 s.c. subcutaneous
SCE - sister-chromatid exchange
SDWA - Safe Drinking Water Act
SF - safety factor
SGOT - serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase
SGPT - serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase
Sh - Surface area (in sq.cm) of respiratory tract for human used in the HEC derivation of an RfC.
Sh(ET) - Surface area (in sq.cm) of extrathoracic region for human used in the HEC derivation of an RfC.
Sh(TB) - Surface area (in sq.cm) of tracheobronchial region for human used in the HEC derivation of an RfC.
Sh(TH) - Surface area (in sq.cm) of thoracic region for human used in the HEC derivation of an RfC.
Sh(PU) - Surface area (in sq.cm) of pulmonary region for human used in the HEC derivation of an RfC.
Sh(TOTAL) - Surface area (in sq.cm) of total respiratory system for human used in the HEC derivation of an RfC.
sigma g - geometric standard deviation
SMCL - secondary maximum contaminant level
SMR - standard mortality ratio
sq.cm. - square centimeters
SRI - Stanford Research Institute
STEL - short-term exposure limit
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T
TB - tracheobronchial region of the respiratory tract
TCC - Tagliabue closed cup, a standard method of determining flash points
TDB - Toxicology Database
TH - thoracic (TB + PU) region of the respiratory tract
TLV - Threshold Limit Value
TOC - Tagliabue open cup, a standard method of determining flash points
TOTAL - total respiratory tract
TSCA - Toxic Substances Control Act
TWA - time-weighted averageý
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U
UCL - upper confidence limit
UEL - upper explosive limit
UF - uncertainty factor
µg - microgram
umol - micromoles
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V
VAa - Alveolar ventilation rate (cu.m/day) for experimental animal species used in HEC derivation of an RfC.
VAh - Alveolar ventilation rate (cu.m/day) for human used in HEC derivation of an RfC.
VOC - volatile organic compound
v/v - volume for volume
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W
WBC - white blood cell(s)
WQC - Water Quality Criteria
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